Convection Power Plant
Welcome to a short and simplified Introduction to the Convection Power Plant.
Facts to know :
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion "OTEC" :
Betz's law and why Windparks are not as "Green" as we think :
Liquid Density Change with Temperature :
Pipelines and Pressure used :
The "Albedo" or reflect capability of different Surfaces and Materials :
Atmospheric Temperature :
Entropy : In Energy Production Entropy can be interpreted as "Production of Waste Energy"
This Fact tells us that the Efficiency of a Power Plant, Thermal Plants like Coal/Gas
reaching max.40%, producing more Energy as Entropy then Energy as usable Power.
To start here we should first take a look at OTEC, because the Efficiency of this Technology is only at max. 6.7%. This Fact is related to the Carnot Efficiency of Thermal operating Systems within the delta T. (Steam/Expanding Gas Turbines) But it is sadly a Project that a lot of Companies working on at the Moment. It is also very similar to the Project we are working on, but has significant drawbacks, that i will explain in the progress.
So Entropy is Waste Energy, but what does that mean ? Waste Energy is the simple Expression for mixing a Temperature separated System into a Homogene mixed System. But because the Energy we release is at it's orginal State not Thermal, but saved as Chemical Bond, the released Energy/Entropy by Oxidation/Thermal Decomposition is just increasing the average Temperature of our System. A Higher average Temperature on Earth, or better, Lower Athmosphere has to be converted into Enthalpy, means into melting Ice, evaporation of Water and other Energy consuming Processes like Solubility ect.
OTEC uses the Temperature difference between cold deep Water and warm surface Water where the difference is about 20°C. This difference is used to evaporate a liquid Carrier with the warm Water, run a "steam" Turbine and after that condensing the Carrier back to a liquid with the cold Water. Therefor the warm Water gets cooled and the cold Water gets heated. The cold Water has to be pumped from the deep of the Ocean. At the end of the Cycle roughly 40% of the produced energy by the Steam Turbine can be used for Electricity production. 60% of the produced Energy is used for the Powerplant itself, like for driving the Pumps.
There are another two major Drawback in OTEC. First the Technology is actually only using the Ocean as a storage for Entropy, so waste Energy, since the "Carnot Efficiency" does set the maximum Energy that can be converted. Secondly it reduces the surface Temperature of the Ocean and with that reduces the Evaporation of Surface Water. This leads to less Rain in the region around the Powerplant and its affected Weather Area. Since the Amount of Water per hour used is enormous, multiple Power Plants will affect the Environment.
OTEC is a dangerous Technology for the Future of our Planet and has to be stopped and Replaced by a Technology that is supporting our Planet instead of hurting it. Therefor we have to understand our Atmosphere, because the Atmosphere is the Scavenger of our Planet. Within the Convection Cycle of the Atmosphere, the Energy or better Entropy is lead from the Surface of the Planet to Space in form of Radiation.
Why not using Convection to our advantage. The Atmosphere isn't the perfect Scavenger, multiple Layers and fast convection movements end up in Storms and even Hurricanes, that's why we should support the Atmosphere. The Powerplant will do the exact same Job as our Atmosphere, because in the Atmosphere condensing Water also release the Heat Energy in form of Condensing Enthalpy or even Crystallisation Enthalpy but at low Temperatures. The CPP would transfer "dry" heat into the already dry Layer of the Atmosphere and would make the Energy able to radiate more easy to Space.
The Atmosphere Temperature from 0 m to about 10'000 m is decreasing every 1000m by about 5-10°C. Here we could use Liquid Convection to overcome Layers.The Density of Water from 4°C to 40°C is changing by 0.7%, where for example Ethanol is changing by 3.9%. this leads to a 5-6 times higher "Convection Pressure".
Building a Convection Cycle with a Liquid and using Steam Turbines to transport Heat into the Cycle and out of the Cycle, every Mountain with a rough 20°C Temperature difference between its Valley and Top becomes a potential Powerplant, illustrated in the very simplified Schematic below. As bigger the Temperature difference as more efficient the Cycle gets.
In this Scenario, no Pumps are used to sustain the convection Cycle, no Energy is used to drive the Power Plant, and three instead of one Turbine are generating Power. The Convection Cycle has a Liquid Turbine, where the Heat Transport Cycles have Steam Turbines, driven by liquified Gas.
A 2000m Height difference will create about 200 bar of Hydrostatic Pressure but therefor explained in "Facts to know" that high pressure Pipelines already are driven by 200bar and higher.
Every Entropy producing Facility or Household can be attached to that Power Plant and make it even more effective. As bigger the Temperature Difference as better the Carnot Efficiency.
This Powerplant will create Energy with the Turbines, Fresh Water with the condensing Humidity at the "Valley Heat Transfer" and CO2 Certificates by accelerating the natural Heat Cycle of the Atmosphere.
There is another great advantage of this Power Plant. A Compressor can be used to accelerate the Liquid Cycle and make the Power Plant even more efficient by creating a higher Temperatur Difference between the outside Temperature and the Heat Exchanger, discribed in the Picture below.
With this Upgrade the Temperature Difference at the Heat Exchangers is getting higher and with that is improving the Carnot Efficiency. This Upgrade also accelerating the Liquid Cycle and conserving the Energy used for the Compressor. The whole Compression Upgrade acts nearly the same way as the Impulse Conservation on a Sailboat that saves his Impulse by its own Speed changing from true Wind to apparent wind. The Compressor allow that the Amount of Energy transferred can be controlled and is not only bound to the area of the Heat Exchangers. In a perfect Simulation the Energy used for the Compressor is easy regained by the positive effects granted.
Those Powerplants would be best located in India, China, USA, Spain, South America and Africa where high Mountains support the Temperature Difference to transfer the "dry" Heat into the higher Atmosphere where the Energy can be reflected way more easy to space because it does not have pass the Water Cycle creating evaporation Enthalpy.
This Effect we all already know. In a clear Night, where the Air is dry and the Stars are bright, the Temperature is always lower. A fresh clear Night. The Wavelenghts of the outgoing Radiation is less adsorbed on its way to Space, from Water Vapor.
The "Convection Power Plant" is just like a controlled outlet Valve for Entropy, with Turbines that filters the Energy back from the Entropy within the delta T, and producing fresh Water at the Heat exchanging Surfaces. Just think BIG !
As an Example of how heat in Air layers is distributed over the Hymalya Massive :
The first Picture shows how the Temperature is 2m above GROUND_LEVEL (not sea level)
The Next Picture shows the Temperature 500m above GROUND_LEVEL
As you can see, the uprising Warm Air at the Hymalaya Massive is floading over the cold protected Air at the Ground. The Air is still warm, because of Condensation of Humidity and Cristallisation while uprising.
We are currently working on the Project and try to build up a very small Pilot Plant not driven by the Atmosphere, instead with 20°C Temperature Difference Water Cycles and only a 100m Height Difference.
Pictures of the Project :